Recent cuts in EU member states' defence budgets make it impossible to maintain adequate military capabilities at the national level. Only a greater European integration of the national armed forces can keep them effective and efficient. Some steps forward in this direction are possible, although difficult, on several levels: the implementation of the pooling and sharing approach on the military level; the establishment of the permanent structured cooperation on the institutional level; the definition of a European roadmap for dual-use technologies on the technological level; the launch of European procurement programmes co-financed by the EU on the industrial level. All these steps forward are linked to a urgent and basic political choice between two alternatives: more Europe in defence policy, or the complete inability of European countries to conduct such a policy.
Paper prepared by a team of researcher from the Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) in view of the European Council on defence of December 2013.
How to carry out a successful retreat, by Stefano Silvestri, Michele Nones and Alessandro Marrone
1. The military aspect, by Vincenzo Camporini and Valerio Briani
1.2 Current situation: uncoordinated cuts and pooling and sharing
1.3 Steps forward: coordinating cuts and investments
2. The institutional aspect, by Gianni Bonvicini and Giovanni Faleg
2.2 Current situation: the misfortune of post-Lisbon CSDP
2.3 Steps forward: comprehensive action and PESCO
3. The technological aspect, by Federica Di Camillo and Nicolò Sartori
3.2 Current situation: confused competition among different "technology agendas"
3.3 Steps forward: a European roadmap for dual-use technologies
4. The industrial aspect, by Michele Nones and Jean-Pierre Darnis
4.2 Current situation: a not integrated market with decreasing demand
4.3 Steps forward: implementation of directives and investment agreements