The enlarged Mediterranean region is Italy’s top priority. National interests at stake include the protection of energy supplies and maritime routes, the stabilisation of Libya and the reduction of migrant flows. Italy usually looks for a politico-diplomatic solution, sustained by a long-term military commitment. Rome always seeks a multilateral format for its actions, particularly within the EU and NATO. Italo-French relations have been troubled since the 2011 war in Libya. Germany and EU institutions have played an important role in the region to foster stabilisation.