This special issue of the quartely Energy Union Watch aims at providing an overall evaluation of the Energy Union, the ambitious initiative regarding European energy policy launched between 2014 and 2015 by the Juncker Commission. The analysis has been developed through a general perspective of political and legislative action on the Energy Union in its four years of activity (Part 1: Four years of Energy Union) and via a detailed overview of the National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs) provided in the previous months by the Member States (Part 2: An analysis of the NECPs), divided into the five guiding dimensions on which the activities of the Energy Union have been structured. The aim is to describe actions at the level of European institutions as well as the contributions made by Member States, as described in the NECPs, which will be at the core of translating the Energy Union vision into reality. This report is complemented by an interview with the Vice President for the Energy Union, Maroš Šefčovič, on the future of the initiative, a timeline highlighting the major activities and achievements of the Energy Union and a contribution from the World Energy Council focused on the Italian NECP.
Part 1: Four years of Energy Union
1. Has the Energy Union moved from security of supply to a wider focus?
2. Has the Energy Union brought in strong elements of novelty?
3. Has the Energy Union delivered effective Security of Supply and Energy Market policies?
4. Has the Energy Union aligned the EU climate leadership ambitions with its targets and tools?
5. Has the Energy Union respected its Efficiency First principle?
6. Has the Energy Union turned its strategies and vision into achievements?
Part 2: An analysis of the NECPS
1. Security of Supply
2. Energy Market
3. Energy Efficiency
5. Research, Innovation & Competitiveness
6. Public Debate
Interview: Maroš Šefčovič
Appendix: Timeline of the Energy Union
WEC: Italian NECP in the global energy transition