Defence G2G Agreements: National Strategies Supporting Export and Cooperation

Government-to-Government agreements (G2G) represent a widely used instrument for the sale of arms within the defence market, complementary to those occurring on the market. Such instruments bring advantages to both the purchaser and the seller and contribute towards building and strengthening a network of alliances and partnerships with foreign states. Thanks to the G2G, the acquiring state receives government guarantees on the performance of the contract which might be more advantageous than sales contract concluded directly with the selling company. At the same time, the seller state manages to better support the export of its national defence industries. With the exception of Germany, the leading arms exporters in the world have equipped themselves with G2G systems which reflect the peculiarities and meet the national sectoral demands.

This document correspond to the first two chapters of the study by Alessandro Marrone, Michele Nones e Ester Sabatino “La regolazione italiana degli accordi G2G nel settore della difesa” (Documenti IAI No. 20|16, September 2020). The chapter on Italy has not been translated.

Rome, IAI, September 2020, 37 p.
Publication date: 

Executive summary
1. The importance of G2G agreements in the defence market
, by Alessandro Marrone
1.1 The importance at the politico-military level
1.2 The importance at the industrial-technological level
1.3 The transfer and the sale of surplus weapons
2. The main actors within the field of military G2G agreements, by Ester Sabatino
2.1 United States
2.1.1 Legal framework
2.1.2 Procedures and functioning of the system
2.2 France
2.2.1 Legal framework
2.2.2 Procedures and functioning of the system
2.3 Germany
2.3.1 Legal framework
2.3.2 Procedures and functioning of the system
2.4. United Kingdom
2.4.1 Legal framework
2.4.2 Procedures and functioning of the system
2.5 Spain
2.5.1 Legal framework
2.5.2 Procedures and functioning of the system
2.6 Sweden
2.6.1 Legal framework
2.6.2 Procedures and functioning of the system
List of acronyms

Research area