Strategic, political, industrial and arms control implications

The United States Government plans to deploy 10 interceptors in Poland and a radar installation in the Czech Republic. This has caused a stir in political and military circles in both Europe and Russia. This study examines the US proposals and their possible implications for Europe. It makes an assessment of the degree to which defences might enhance European security and sets out the parameters of a European approach towards missile defence.

Study requested by the European Parliament's Subcommittee on Security and Defence to ISIS Europe.

in Stephen Pullinger, Giovanni Gasparini, Götz Neuneck, Xavier Pasco, Missile Defence and European Security, Brussels, European Parliament, November 2007, p. 20-35 (European Parliament Policy Department External Policies Study)
Publication date: 

Introduction: The role of space for defence and security

Part 1. Satellite systems for defence and security in Europe
I. European requirements for improved defence and security capabilities
II. Identifying the European Union's need for use of space applications for European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)
III. Space-based capabilities and their use for defence and security
1. Earth Observation by satellite
2. Telecommunications by satellite
3. Navigation and positioning for security: the role of Galileo
4. Space-based signal and electronic intelligence capabilities
IV. The strategic dimension of the space sector: access to space, independence of information

Part 2. Trends in existing systems for defence and security in Europe
I. National security and defence: Earth observation programmes
1. The French experience
(a) Spot/Hélios family
(b) Pleiades constellation
2. New developments in the Earth Observation Sector
(a) Italian Cosmo-Skymed SAR satellites constellation
(b) The German Sar-Lupe programme
(c) The UK SSTL programmes and Topsat Satellite
(d) Other programmes
3. Cooperation in EO sector
(a) Hélios 1 and 2 cooperation framework: lessons learned
(b) Bilateral agreements
(c) The state of an operational EU asset to support CFSP in particular ESDP: the case of the Satellite Centre of the European Union (EUSC)
(d) Future trends: from BOC to MUSIS
(e) Defence forces/MoD: a user for civilian security space program
II. Telecommunication satellites
1. Telecom satellite technologies for defence, a service often based upon civilian systems
2. Main existing systems: French, Italian, Spanish and UK systems
3. New service-based approach for telecommunications: the NATO Satcom contract, Paradigme/Skynet procurement
4. The new German project SatcomBw
5. The access of “non-space” countries to telecommunication services for defence
6. Other ongoing programmes: Athena-Fidus, DRS/Artemis
III. Developing space technologies: early warning and ELINT French experimental systems
1. Early Warning Demonstration programme
2. French ELINT perspectives
IV. First perspectives for a future European space-based architecture
1. Closer civilian and military needs and technologies, but enduring differences
2. Possible progresses for a European cooperative scheme: evolutionary rather than revolutionary
3. The concept of an integrated European space-based architecture: an answer to the need for a better utilization of dispersed resources
4. What preliminary options for a balanced European architecture?

Part 3. Space, security and defence: policy aspects
I. The separation between defence and security in space
II. Future trends
1. Industrial aspects
2. Economic aspects
(a) Current State
(b) Matching needs and money: a proposal
3. Estimating the global effect of the Distribution of Costs: what perspectives of economies of scale through more Europeanization of EO and telecommunication defence and security space systems?
4. Synthesis of possible cost reduction distribution by Europeanizing existing Earth Observation and telecommunication satellite programmes
III. European cooperation and governance
1. The different models
2. The importance of new research program
3. The potential role of the European Defence Agency (EDA)

Part 4. Recommendations for the European Parliament
About the Authors and the Institutes

Research area