Energy is a key factor shaping relations between Europe and North Africa. Due to the Maghreb's strategic role for European energy security, in the last two decades the EU has attempted to promote deeper energy cooperation both with and within the region. The success of the EU's bilateral and multilateral initiatives, however, has been hindered by diverging interests between European countries and their North African counterparts. The upheaval in the region unleashed by the Arab awakening, along with critical socio-economic challenges like population growth and urbanization, are altering this picture. In this context, the EU should urgently rethink its energy cooperation models with the southern partners, seizing the opportunities engendered by the current moment of change in the region.
Paper produced within the framework of the project "EU Energy Policies towards the Mediterranean", carried out by the Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) in partnership with the Enel Foundation. Presented at the international conference on "Italy's perspectives on forging a new EU-North Africa energy pact", Rome, 18 November 2014. Also published as EF Working Paper Series No. 14/2014 (forthcoming).
1. State of the play: the importance of energy in the Euro-Med equation
1.1 Perspectives from the southern Mediterranean region
1.2 Perspectives from the European Union
1.3 North-South energy cooperation
2. A changing energy landscape: global, regional and domestic factors
2.1 The southern Mediterranean region in turmoil and the impact of energy dynamics
2.2 Regional political instability and the new geopolitics of energy
3. The impact of these trends on Euro-Mediterranean energy relations