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Observatory on European defence, July-August 2005


July 2005
European Union - UK Presidency: ESDP Programme

On 1 July the United Kingdom assumed the Presidency of the European Union. The priorities of the semester in the ESDP field concern: 

  • the fight against international terrorism through information and data exchange and cooperation in intelligence, police and judicial matters (European evidence warrant, telecommunication data retention, security at EU external borders and security of EU citizens’ travel documents) 
  • strengthening transatlantic cooperation, in particular for peace, stability and reforms in the Middle East (Israel-Palestinian peace process and transition in Iraq).

July 2005
EU - International Terrorism

On 7 July terrorist attacks on London's transport network hit at the same time as the opening of the G-8 in Scotland. Four suicide attacks carried out by UK citizens of Pakistani origin caused the death of more than 50 people.
On 13 July the extraordinary session of the Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) Council adopted a statement on the EU response to the attacks which summarised the updated measures envisaged in the EU action plan for the fight against terrorism of September 2001. 
A timetable was defined for the actions to be implemented by the end of 2005 aimed at: 

  • making cross-border enquiries easier 
  • favouring full use of EUROPOL (with its antiterrorism Task Force) and EUROJUST 
  • retaining telecommunication data 
  • adopting the European evidence warrant 
  • favouring information exchange among national authorities. 

Other measures concern the adoption of the third Directive on money laundering, of a Regulation on electronic transfer of funds and of a Code of Conduct to prevent illegal use of charitable organisations by terrorists. 
The European Council of December, devoted to the EU fight against terrorism, will adopt an updated version of the plan of action for the fight against terrorism, as well as a strategy against terrorist recruitment. 
The General Affairs and External Relations Council (GAERC) of 18 July also summarised the conclusions of the abovementioned extraordinary JHA Council, underlining that the fight against terrorism must be a fundamental element of all political dialogues between the EU and third countries.

July 2005
ESDP Capabilities - European Security and Defence College, Civilian response teams, European Defence Market

The development of ESDP was the object of several initiatives during the month of July. 
The General Affairs and External Relations Council (GAERC) of 18 July approved a Joint Action establishing the European Security and Defence College (ESDC). The College, already promoted in principle by the conclusions of the June 2003 European Council in Thessalonica and by a GAERC agreement of last 27 June, will foster a network among national and European bodies to favour the development of a European security culture, through the training of civil and military staffs coming from member States and European institutions. 
Moreover the Council faced the issue of improving European civil protection capabilities and took note of a report on "multifunctional civilian crisis management resources in integrated form - civilian response teams", submitted by High Representative Solana. A civilian response team (CRT) is a rapid reaction flexible capability, composed of experts seconded by member states and with the participation of the Council Secretariat aimed at providing an early assessment and of civil management for crises, also in support of a ESDP mission. The initiative is set within the framework of the Civilian Headline Goal 2008 adopted by the European Council of 17 December 2004 and should reach an initial operational capability for a core of about 100 experts at end 2006. 
Previously, the 30 June meeting of the Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER) of EU Member States of reached a consensus on a draft for a Common Position of the Council defining common rules on military equipment and technology export controls that are legally binding and directly applicable by the EU member states, in substitution of the 1998 EU Code of Conduct on arms export. The draft defines the criteria of the Code of Conduct more specifically, and foresees the automatic annual publication of information on military and technology exports, as well as an obligation for the member states to publish an annual report on their arms exports.

July-August 2005
EU Missions - Iraq, Sudan/Darfur

On 1 July, the operational phase of the integrated Rule of Law mission (EUJUST LEX) in Iraq began. This involves training about 800 Iraqi political functionaries, judges (civil administration) and police outside Iraqi territory, initially for a period of 12 months, or as long as the security conditions and the availability of appropriate structures do not allow for projects inside the country. The budget allocated for common costs is 10 million euros. A liaison office for the mission is foreseen in Baghdad. 
On 1 July the NATO mission in Darfur/Sudan in support of the AMIS II peacekeeping mission of the African Union (AU) was launched. The mission of the Atlantic Alliance foresees the training of African forces with about 30 trainers. 
Moreover NATO provides coordination and financing of the strategic transport of 7 out of 8 battalions (transport of the Senegalese battalion is provided by the EU) and 2 companies that have to reach Darfur to expand the AU mission (from 3,320 to 7,700 units) by September 2005. 
The Atlantic Alliance collaborates with the AU, the EU and the UN through close coordination between the NATO Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) and the European Airlift Centre (EAC), coordination unit for the strategic air transport of Eindhoven (Netherlands) air base used by the EU. 
Most transfers are scheduled for September, with Canada, the Netherlands, Denmark, Turkey and Italy contributing. Following the request made by the AU in early August for support for the strategic transport of civil staffs, NATO provided for the transfer to Darfur of 49 men from the AU police force, in close coordination with the EU. On 18 July the General Affairs and External Relations Council formally adopted the Joint Action on the EU support action for the AMIS II mission, detailing the civil components (mainly support for the police chain of command and training) and the military ones (mainly strategic transport, military observers and training) seconded by the EU, with a total financing amounting to about 170 million euros.

August 2005
EU - Non Proliferation - Iran

On 5 August Iran rejected the proposal for an agreement on the nuclear issue formulated by the EU-3 (France, Germany, United Kingdom and High Representative Solana) in the framework of the Paris agreement of November 2004. 
The unilateral resumption, on 8 August, of the uranium enrichment activities provoked the concerns of the European Union which, in a statement of 17 August, urged Teheran once again to suspend all nuclear activities in compliance with the 11 August resolution of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) , and made the resumption of negotiations conditional upon a complete standstill of the abovementioned activities and cooperation with the IAEA.

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