Observatory on European defence, July-August 2003
1-2 July 2003
Italian Presidency - ESDP and CFSP Program
The Italian semester of Presidency of the EU began on 1 July.
The program for the semester was presented to the European Parliament on 2 July.
The specific program for development of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) was presented to the Political and Security Committee (PSC) on 1 July.
The Italian Presidency proposes to:
- develop synergies between EU and NATO, in particular in the field of reaction forces
- include the fight against international terrorism as an EU mission
- build an intergovernmental Armaments Agency
- strengthen the ESDP institutions
- improve the operational capabilities of European forces
- solve the problem of financing military capabilities
- further civilian/military cooperation
- develop common training
- improve relations with Russia
18 July 2003
European Convention - Constitution: ESDP
The draft of the new Treaty establishing the European Constitution was presented to the Italian Presidency.
The Inter Governmental Conference (IGC) that will discuss and adopt it will open in October.
The draft is the result of months of discussion within the Convention and includes a number of Articles of importance for the governance of CFSP and ESDP (Title I and V, Articles 39-40, 193-215, 231).
The main articles concerning ESDP (Art. 40, 210-214) propose:
- the establishment of a European Armaments Agency (Art. 212)
- the possibility to engage in reinforced cooperation between some members (Art. 213 e 325)
- the possibility of signing a collective defence clause (Art. 214)
- the adoption of a solidarity clause between all members (Art. 231)
21 July 2003
General Affairs and External Relations Council - Operation Concordia
On 21 July, the Council decided to extend until 15 December the military mission Concordia in Macedonia (FYROM). After this deadline, a police mission will probably take over from the military.
On 29 July, the Portuguese General Ferriera dos Santos was nominated force commander; on 1 October the international force will be taken over by EUROFOR.
Since the EU mission uses NATO assets, a European Command Element (EUCE) has been built up within the NATO AFSOUTH Command in Naples.
On 16 July, NATO approved the continuation of the mission.
A NAC - PSC meeting on 15 July discussed the extension of Operation Concordia, as well as the possibility of intervening in Moldavia. No decision has been taken.
The importance of the cooperation in the Balkans between NATO and the EU has been confirmed by the publication, on 29 July, of a common strategic document for the stabilisation of this region.
11 August 2003
NATO - ISAF Command
The Atlantic Alliance took over command of the international force of stabilisation operating in the Kabul area with a UN mandate.
It is the first NATO mission that goes well beyond the traditional European area of intervention.