The Mediterranean Region. Economic Interdependence and the Future of Society

The Mediterranean region is now of increasing importance both economically and strategically. As a region it is undergoing considerable economic change on the Southern European flank and also in North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean Arab states. Its strategic importance is reinforced by the pressures on NATO to strengthen its southern flank and resist Soviet naval incursion from the Black Sea bases. This book, by a group of international experts on the region, considers the broad economic and political problems facing the region from a variety of perspectives. The changing legal environment is discussed: in broad terms it looks at the new Law of the Sea as it applies to the Mediterranean, and more specifically, at the position of the Arab countries in the region. The different policies of Russia, the United States and the European Community towards the Mediterranean are analysed in separate chapters. Little has been published on the region in recent years, but this book will prove to be a significant contribution to contemporary understanding of the area.

Final product of the research project "Growing Economic Interdependence and the Future of Security in the Mediterranean" conducted by the Istituto Affari internazionali (IAI) and funded by the Ford Foundation. Chapters 8 and 10 published also in The International Spectator, Vol. 17, No. 4 (October-December 1982).

London, Croom Helm / New York, St. Martin's Press, March 1984, 333 p.
0-7099-1656-6 ; 978-0-7099-1656-7 ; 0-312-5281-8 (St.Martin's Press) ;978-0-312-52818-8
Publication date: 

List of Tables, p. i-ii
List of Figures, p. iii
Note on contributors, p. iv
Acknowledgements, p. v-vi
Introduction, p. vii-xx

Part I. Energy and Other Resources

1. The Mediterranean and the Energy Picture, by Giacomo Luciani, p. 1-40
1.1 Introduction
Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production
The nature and configuration of the Mediterranean seabed
The development of offshore technology
Current offshore production
Offshore exploration
1.2 Oil Transportation
Determinants of Mediterranean oil traffic
The redirection of oil logistics
Developments in Iraq in the 1970s
The Saudi East-West pipeline
The Sumed and the reopening of the Suez Canal
New strategic pipelines under construction
Future evolution of oil traffic
1.3 The Mediterranean and the Development of Natural Gas Resources
Some peculiarities·of natural gas
Current infrastructure for gas trade
Possible developments of gas trade
Offshore gas reserves

2. Mediterranean Non-Energy Resources: Scope for Cooperation and Dangers of Conflict, by Gerald H. Blake, p. 41-74
2.1 Fishing
Importance of Mediterranean fisheries
Exclusive fishing claims and disputes
Conclusion - Fishing
2.2 Seabed Mining
Mediterranean seabed resources
Conclusion - Seabed mining
2.3 Environmental Protection
Types of pollution
International cooperation to combat Mediterranean pollution
Conclusion - Environmental protection
Seabed mining
Environmental protection

Part II. Legal Considerations: Territorial Limits, Continental Shelf and the Law of the Sea

3. Extension and Delimitation of National Sea Boundaries in the Mediterranean, by Geoffrey Marston, p. 75-125
3.1 The Physical Background
3.2 The Legal Background
The International Law of the Sea: the 1958 Convention
Relevant concepts in the International Law of the Sea
The International Law of the Sea: the work of UNCLOS III
The International Law of the Sea: the work of UNCLOS III in developing new concepts
The legal status of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea
The practice of the Mediterranean states
3.3 Cooperation between Mediterranean States
3.4 The Legal Aspects of Future Delimitations in the Mediterranean

4. The Arab States and Major Sea Issues, by Nazih N.M. Ayubi, p. 126-147
4.1 Arab States and the Third UNCLOS
4.2 General Attitudes and Positions
4.3 Cooperation and Conflict in the Mediterranean Sea
4.4 The Red Sea: An Arab Lake?
4.5 The Persian Gulf: A Sea of Crisis
4.6 The Issue of Foreign Military Bases

Part III. Aspects of Political and Military Conflict

5. Maghrebi Politics and Mediterranean Implications, by I. William Zartmann, p. 149-178
5.1 General Sources of Conflict in Maghrebi
5.2 Politics
National consolidation processes
The checkerboard pattern of relations
Position with regional contexts
Position in global politics
5.3 The Sea as a Source of Conflict
Bridges across the sea
The sea as a potential battlefield
Bases and external military presence
Perceptions of the geostrategic significance of the Mediterranean
5.4 The Sea as a Door through which Outside
5.5 Conflicts Penetrate the Region
Relations with the superpowers
Breakdown of regional organizations
Superpower hegemony and conflict resolution
The potential for Soviet penetration
Two models for the future

6. Subnational Conflict in the Mediterranean Region, by Brian M. Jenkins, p. 179-205
6.1 Patterns of Conflict in the Mediterranean
6.2 The Cradle of International Terrorism
6.3 A Labyrinth of Secret Wars and Secret Deals
6.4 Terrorism in the Maritime Environment
6.5 Are Maritime Targets Attractive to Terrorists?
6.6 Current and Future Capabilities
6.7 Prospects for Cooperation
6.8 The Outlook
A Chronology of Conflict in the Mediterranean

7. The Military Presence of the Riparian Countries, by Maurizio Cremasco, p. 206-238
7.1 The Frame of Reference
7.2 A Summary Description of the Current Situation
7.3 The Implications of a New Situation

Part IV. Europe, the Superpowers and the Mediterranean

8. European Concepts for the Mediterranean Region, by Elfriede Regelsberger and Wolfgang Wessels, p. 239-266
Introduction: The Political Challenges
8.1 The Historical Devlopment of an EC
8.2 Mediterranean Policy
The first phase of Community policies
European Political Cooperation and the Mediterranean region
The Euro-Arab dialogue and concepts for group-to-group negotiations
Towards a new phase?
8.3 The Importance of the Mediterranean Region for the EC
General political and security interests
Cultural-historical links
The management of common Mediterranean problems
Some conclusions
The EC internal dimension
8.4 Global Options
First Set of options: a “mare nostrum” of the littorals
Second set of options: diversifying EC policies
8.5 A Need for Decisions?

9. Soviet Strategy and the Objectives of their Naval Presence in the Mediterranean, by Robert G. Weinland, p. 267-291
9.1 Naval Strategy
9.2 Planning for Wartime
9.3 Policy in Peacetime
Active defence of peace and progress
Defence of peace
Defence of progress
Preparation of maritime theatres of military operations
9.4 The Evolution of the Soviet Naval Presence in the Mediterranean
9.5 The Future

10. American Foreign Policy, NATO in the Mediterranean and the Defence of the Gulf, by Ciro Elliott Zoppo, p. 292-324
10.1 East-West Security in North-South Politics: A Crucible for Interdependence
10.2 The Defence of the Gulf and Mediterranean Security
10.3 Developments in Military Technology and the Changing
10.4 Character of Security in the Mediterranean
10.5 Nato Aspects of Gulf Contingencies and Superpower
10.6 Rules of Engagement in the Mediterranean
10.7 U.S. National Interests Linking the Mediterranean to the Gulf as a Function of East-West Factors
10.8 Issues and Prospects for Security

Index, p. 325-333

Research area