Embeddedness of the MENA in Economic Globalization Processes

MENA countries’ integration in processes of economic globalization has trailed behind many emerging markets in Asia, but also Latin America. This applies especially to the “bunker states” and “bully praetorian states” of the Arab republics and Iran, less so to Lebanon and the “globalizing monarchies” of the GCC, Morocco, and Jordan and even less to the OECD countries of Israel and Turkey. Against this heterogeneous backdrop, this paper identifies seven areas where some MENA countries show pronounced embeddedness in economic globalization processes: (1) petrochemicals and heavy industries, (2) financial services, (3) logistics and airlines, (4) light manufacturing, (5) high-tech, (6) arms trade, and (7) agriculture and food imports. In sum, MENA countries show considerable integration in economic globalization processes in selected countries and key areas, such as petrochemicals in the Gulf, high-tech in Israel, and light manufacturing in Turkey, Morocco, and Tunisia.

Rome, IAI, June 2018, 25 p.
Working Papers 8
Publication date: 

Introduction: The Economic Integration of the MENA Region and the Peripheralization Story
Embeddedness I: Heavy Industries (Gulf, Turkey and Morocco)
Embeddedness II: Finance (Gulf, Lebanon, Morocco, Turkey)
Embeddedness III: Logistics (Gulf, Egypt, Morocco, Turkey)
Embeddedness IV: Light Manufacturing (Turkey, Morocco, Tunisia)
Embeddedness V: High-Tech (Israel)
Embeddedness VI: The Arms Trade (Gulf, Israel, Turkey, Algeria, Egypt)
Embeddedness VII: Agriculture and Food Trade (all MENA)

Research area