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Embeddedness of the MENA in Economic Globalization Processes


MENA countries’ integration in processes of economic globalization has trailed behind many emerging markets in Asia, but also Latin America. This applies especially to the “bunker states” and “bully praetorian states” of the Arab republics and Iran, less so to Lebanon and the “globalizing monarchies” of the GCC, Morocco, and Jordan and even less to the OECD countries of Israel and Turkey. Against this heterogeneous backdrop, this paper identifies seven areas where some MENA countries show pronounced embeddedness in economic globalization processes: (1) petrochemicals and heavy industries, (2) financial services, (3) logistics and airlines, (4) light manufacturing, (5) high-tech, (6) arms trade, and (7) agriculture and food imports. In sum, MENA countries show considerable integration in economic globalization processes in selected countries and key areas, such as petrochemicals in the Gulf, high-tech in Israel, and light manufacturing in Turkey, Morocco, and Tunisia.