Building Sustainable Agriculture for Food Security in the Euro-Mediterranean Area: Challenges and Policy Options

Sustainable agriculture and food security are of particular concern for the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and represent one of the biggest challenges facing the area. As a consequence of the region's heavy reliance on food imports, the sharp increase in food prices since 2007 and the consequent world food crisis has had severe adverse effects in several countries, causing macro-economic problems (inflation, trade deficits, fiscal pressure), increased poverty and political instability. This challenge, coupled with the consequences of environmental degradation, water scarcity, urbanization and climate stress, call for the urgent development of sustainable agriculture and food systems. In spite of these problems, agriculture has mostly been ignored in Euro-Mediterranean relations, due to strong opposition from the EU. However, academics and policymakers have increasingly acknowledged that agriculture is a key strategic sector for Mediterranean countries that needs to be placed at the core of Euro-Mediterranean regional cooperation. Given the sensitiveness and strategic importance of agriculture for both shores of the Mediterranean, the IAI and the OCP Policy Center jointly organized a two-day conference in Rabat on November 20-21, 2014, to discuss food security and agriculture challenges in the framework of Euro-Mediterranean relations. The present volume collects the updated and revised versions of the twelve papers that were discussed in that meeting.

This volume is the follow-up of the international conference held in Rabat on 20-21 November 2014 and organized within the strategic partnership between the Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) and the OCP Policy Center (OCPPC). Presented at the seminar "Linking Food Security to Sustainable Agricultural Policies in the Mediterranean: The Experts' Views", organized on 20 June 2015 in the framework of the Expo Milano 2015.

Roma, Nuova Cultura, May 2015, 334 p.
Publication date: 

List of Contributors, p. 11-13
List of Abbreviations, p. 15-19
Foreward, p. 21

1. Understanding Food Security and Agricultural Challenges in the Euro-Mediterranean Region
Maria Cristina Paciello, p. 23-30
1.1 Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture
1.2 Why Did the MENA Region Become a Net-Food Importer?
1.3 The Contributions to the Volume

Part I. Food Security Challenges in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

2. Geopolitical Implications of Water and Food Security in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries
Eugenia Ferragina and Giovanni Canitano, p. 33-59
2.1 The Effect of Climatic Change on Water and Food Security
2.2 The Water-Food Nexus
2.3 The Quest for Food Security in SEMCs: Economic and Political Implications
2.4 Conflict Over Land and Water: A Geopolitical Issue
2.5 Food Security from the Euro-Mediterranean Perspective

3. Livestock and Food Security in the Arab region: Policy Impact within the Euro-Mediterranean Framework
Shadi K. Hamadeh, Lina S. Jaber, Katharina E. Diehl, p. 61-84
3.1 The Arab Livestock Sector
3.2 Trade with the EU
3.3 National Policies
3.4 EU Policies
3.5 Synergies between EU and Arab Policies
3.5.1 Arab Policies
3.5.2 EU Policies
3.5.3 Euro-Mediterranean Policies

4. Allowing or Banning Genetically Modified Food and Feed? Morocco in Search of a Synthesis between Conflicting Regulatory Models
Daniela Corona, p. 85-110
4.1 GMOs in Context: A Possible Solution to Feed the African Continent?
4.2 Regulatory Framework on Food Safety in Morocco: The Longstanding Attempt to Regulate GMOs
4.2.1 International Rules Dealing with GMOs
4.2.2 National Regulatory Framework on Food Safety: GMO Regulation Is Notably Absent
4.3 EU-Morocco Relations: Exerting Influence Against GMOs
4.3.1 EU-Morocco Relations
4.3.2 EU Regulation on GMOs: Work in Progress
4.4 US-Morocco Relations: Exerting Influence in Favour of GMOs
4.4.1 The US Approach to GMOs: Go-ahead!
4.4.2 US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement (FTA)

Part II. Small Farming and Agricultural Production Systems in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

5. The Challenges to Achieve Sustainable Exports of Fruit from Small-Holdings in the Southern Mediterranean
Caroline King-Okumu and Abdrabbo A.A.S. Aboukheira, p. 113-137
5.1 Background on Horticultural Imports to the EU
5.2 Import Standards and Constraints on Smallholders’ Access to Export Markets
5.3 Progress and Constraints to Environmentally Sustainable Citrus Production in Egypt
5.4 Case Study: Citrus Production in El Bustan, Nile Delta, 2011-13
5.5 Discussion
5.6 Policy Implications

6. Réhabiliter les systèmes agricoles basés sur la diversification culturale et l'intégration de l'élevage en vue de favoriser la sécurité alimentaire au Maroc
Mohamed Taher Sraïri et Marcel Kuper, p. 139-156
6.1 Volatilité des prix agricoles et vulnérabilité face à l'aléa climatique
6.2 Le travail agricole: de l'abondance à l’exacerbation des tensions
6.3 L'enjeu de la durabilité face à des ressources hydriques menacées
6.4 Dépendance vis-à-vis de gènes importés
6.5 Stagnation des rendements des cultures vivrières et augmentation des importations
6.6 Une agriculture diversifiée pour une meilleure sécurité alimentaire

7. Small Farmers' Collective Action Problems in Crop Switching and Adopting Higher Food Standards: How Could the EU Help Foster Sustainable Development?
Omer Gokcekus and Clare M. Finnegan, p. 157-176
7.1 Main Issue: Collective Action Problem
7.2 Background: Cyprus & Its Green Line Regulation
7.2.1 The Green Line Regulation
7.3 Case 1: Beekeepers' Dated Standards
7.3.1 Turkish Cypriot Beekeepers and the Collective Action Problem
7.3.2 Building Adaptive Capacity and Creating Sustainable Development
7.4 Case 2: Citrus Growers' Dilemma
7.4.1 Climate Considerations
7.4.2 Overcoming the Collective Action Problem in Four Phases
7.4.3 Building Adaptive Capacity and Creating Sustainable Development
7.5 Lessons Learned

Part III. Agricultural Trade Liberalization

8. The Effect of Trade Liberalization on the Sustainability of Agricultural Sectors in Egypt and Tunisia: A New Framework Based on TFP Growth Structure
Boubaker Dhehibi, Aymen Frija, Roberto Telleria and Aden Aw-Hassan, p. 179-205
8.1 Literature Review on TFP Growth in the MENA Region
8.2 Measuring Agricultural Productivity: An Application of the Törnqvist-Theil Index
8.2.1 Theoretical Framework
8.2.2 Data and Variables Specification
8.3 Empirical Findings and General Discussion
8.3.1 Outputs, Inputs and TFP Indexes
8.3.2 Factors Affecting Total Factor Productivity Growth
Conclusions and Policy Implications

9. Revisiting the Effect of Trade Preferences Granted to Morocco in the Light of an Export-orientated Approach for Food Security
Laura Márquez-Ramos and Victor Martinez-Gomez, p. 207-228
9.1 Trade Policy and Literature Review
9.2 Data and Descriptive Analysis
9.3 Empirical Analysis
Conclusion and Policy Implications

10. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy Reforms and the Sustainability of Agro-food Systems in the Euro-Mediterranean Region: How to Get Trade and Development Back on the Agenda?
Marko Lovec, p. 229-250
Introduction: The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy as Obstacle to Euro-Mediterranean Integration
10.1 Framework for Analysis: Mechanisms Facilitating the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy Reforms and Euro-Mediterranean Agriculture
10.1.1 Note on the Method
10.2 Results of Parallel Analysis of Common Agricultural Policy Reforms and the Euro-Mediterranean Integration Process
10.2.1 New Global Regime on Trade and Agriculture and the Launch of the Barcelona Process
10.2.2 Towards Multifunctional Policy Paradigm and Re-engagement in the Barcelona Process
10.2.3 Status Quo Bias of the 2013 Reform and the Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa
Discussion and Recommendations: How to Get Trade and Development Back on the Agenda

Part IV. Policy Options to Foster Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

11. Sustainable Mediterranean Agriculture for Food Security? Challenges for the Euro-Mediterranean Relationship
Michel Petit, p. 253-280
11.1 Current Domestic Policies and Recent Trends Are Not Sustainable
11.1.1 Import Dependency
11.1.2 Stubborn Rural Poverty
11.1.3 Deteriorating Natural Resources
11.1.4 Worrisome Demographic Trends
11.2 Implications for the Euro-Mediterranean Relationship
11.2.1 Trade Liberalization at the Centre of the Relationship for Decades
11.2.2 Unintended Consequences of the Role Given to Trade Liberalization
11.3 A New Strategic Direction Is Needed

12. The Cross-national Coordination of Urban Food Policies in the Euro-Mediterranean Area: The Urban Food Policy Pact Initiative as a Model for Enhanced Food Security in the South Mediterranean Region
Lorenzo Kihlgren Grandi and Cecilia Emma Sottilotta, p. 281-309
12.1 Concept and Measurement of Food Security: An Overview
12.2 Food Security and Urbanization
12.3 Urbanization and Food Security in the Southern Mediterranean Area
12.4 Advocating Globally for Urban Food Policies: The Road to Expo 2015 Milan
12.5 The Urban Food Policy Pact
12.6 Building the Urban Food Policy Pact: Tools and Partners
12.7 Milan’s UFPP as a Model for the Mediterranean Region: Challenges and Opportunities

13. Functional Integration of Renewable Energy and Food Production Systems for the Mediterranean Countries
Marco Adami and Alberto Battistelli, p. 311-325
13.1 The Project: ECOFLEX
13.1.1 The Experiment
13.1.2 Results and Discussion

Annexes, p. 327-334

Research area