Role Perceptions in Global Environmental Negotiations: From Reformist Leaders to Conservative Bystanders
How ambitious, active and influential are countries and regional groups in global environmental negotiations? We construct eight ideal types of their roles based on ambition, activity and influence. We then examine how the roles of countries and regional groups are perceived by participants in these negotiations through a large-scale online survey. The European Union, Norway and the African Group are perceived as the most prominent reformist leaders, being highly ambitious, active and influential. On the contrary, India, the Russian Federation and many regional groups are mostly perceived as conservative bystanders, with low levels of ambition, activity and influence.
Keywords: environment; international negotiations; leadership; perceptions; roles
Dati bibliograficiThe International Spectator, Vol. 56, No. 3, September 2021, p. 7-23