Contrary to common knowledge, Turkey does not refrain from challenging Russia in its neighborhood. A substantial difference exists between Turkey’s policy towards Russia in the Black Sea region and in the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean. In the case of the latter, Turkey is much more assertive. However, Turkey seems not to realize that its self-constraint in the Black Sea region is only encouraging Russia to be more of a bully in the Middle East. If Turkey wants to more efficiently counterbalance Russia in the Middle East, it should align its foreign policy more substantially with the West in the Black Sea region.
Paper produced within the framework of the project Turkey, Europe and the World.
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