This paper reviews the EU's conceptualizations of human rights and democracy promotion and its relevant policies to trace adjustments and their possible patterns. Concentrating on policy developments after the 2004 enlargement, scheduled policy reviews, the establishment of new policies, and the Arab Spring, the paper aims to show whether the EU has altered its strategies following internal or external developments. The paper suggests that adjustments have been more pronounced after external shocks, while the EU has not been inclined to adjust its approach when extending its democracy promotion to other regions.
Paper produced within the framework of the IAI project Transworld.
1. The EU as Human Rights and Democracy Promoter
2. Discursive Adjustments in EU Policies
3. Practical Adjustments in EU Policies
Conclusion: "Shocked" into Adjustments