Morocco: A Decade of Popular Struggles and Monarchy Resistance
In the last decade Morocco has been exposed to intermittent mass protests that, although different in their demands, underlined a deep social and economic discontent challenging the Kingdom’s supposed “exceptionalism” in term of democratic rights and economic development. However, despite this decade of social turmoil and the limited political opening implemented post-2011, king Mohammed VI skilfully succeeded in holding the reins of power. Cosmetic political reforms, persisting economic hardship and inequalities, the lack of cohesion and capability within the protest movements and the opposition political parties themselves, together with the growing self-confidence of Mohammed VI (also thanks to new external alliances) represent key factors that contributed to the end of the supposed 2011 opening.
1. The first wave of protests: The 20 February Movement
2. Mohammed VI and the neutralisation of the 20FM
3. The second and third waves of protests
4. Internal dynamics and external powers: The ability of Mohammed VI to hold the reins of the Kingdom