Print version

To Have or Not to Have Competence: EU Integration by Stealth through Permacrisis


We reside in an era of permacrisis that demands a prompt response from the European Union. “Integration by stealth” defines a unique form of European integration that does not necessitate amending the Treaties: in emergency, European law may become malleable, allowing the Union to act where no competence is conferred. Exploring the Union’s reaction to the sovereign debt crisis (2010–15), the refugee crisis (2015–16), the Covid-19 pandemic (2020–21) and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine (since 2022), a comprehensive panoramic of the new creative solutions and their benefits and drawbacks is illustrated. Could this be the potential future of the European integration process?