European Policies in the Industry Sector in Morocco: A Bottom-up Assessment
This report focuses on the industry sector in Morocco as part of the MEDRESET project financed by the European Union. Through interviews with relevant stakeholders, it examines the Euro-Mediterranean politics that promote industry in Morocco. The methodology is briefly described at the beginning of this report; however, further details are stated in the MEDRESET Methodology and Concept Paper on industry and energy. The principal results can be summarised as follows: European policies in the industry sector in Morocco are not directly focused on industry but rather on support to implement free trade agreements and business development. Nevertheless, these policies affect the industry sector owing to the impact of association agreements. This is true of free trade agreements and European aid alike, as well as the upgrading policies or aid programmes and the growth and competitiveness support programme. Morocco has also demonstrated a willingness to develop its industrial sector, particularly through the implementation of successive plans. These plans have facilitated the emergence of sectors such as automobiles. With regard to the challenges, local needs and general wellbeing of the population, the interviewed stakeholders generally favour steering towards world trade liberalization in the case of Morocco. Some wish to place it within a local industrial policy, particularly intervening in matters of economic environment quality, while supporting the emergence of national industrial groups. Concerns are largely related to the implementation of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA), which may apply greater competitive pressure on Moroccan industry. Furthermore, even if the issue of gender is relevant to the analysis of this sector, it did not appear to be a matter of concern for the stakeholders.
2. Industry Sector Overview and Analysis in Morocco
2.1 Industry Is a Pivotal Economic Sector in Morocco
2.2 Moroccan Industry Sector Weaknesses
3. National Strategy for Industry Overview
3.1 The Emergence Plan (2005–2009) and the National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009–2015)
3.2 Industrial Acceleration Plan (2014–2020)
4. European Policy for Industry in Morocco Overall Evaluation
4.1 Europe Is a Strategic Partner for Morocco
4.2 Association Agreement EU–Morocco (1996)
4.3 Morocco–EU Industrial Upgrading Programme (1997)
4.4 New Neighbourhood Policy (2004)
4.5 Action Plan (2013–2017)
4.6 The Case of the EU Support Programme to the Growth and Competitiveness of Morocco (2015–2016)
4.7 The DCFTA Project
4.8 Difficult Evaluation of EU Action in the Field of Industry
5. Analysis of Texts Produced by Stakeholders
6. Analysis of Interviews
6.1 What Are the Ideas Advertised by the Stakeholders Regarding Domestic Industry, and Do These Ideas Conflict, Oppose or Coincide with the EU Policy? How Do These Stakeholders Perceive and Evaluate European Policies?
6.2 What Should the European Policy in the Field of Industry Be?
Annex 1: List of interviewed stakeholders
Annex 2: Questionnaire