The 21st century has seen the emergence of a new paradigm for space activity and exploration. After decades of conceiving space as a fundamental infrastructure for activities on Earth (telecommunications services, navigation, Earth observation), from the year 2000 onwards there has been a renewal of space activity. In the US, we saw the space sector relaunched by the emergence of private entrepreneurs from the digital world and a reform of space policy that opened it up to the market and to services. Yet this rebirth, known as the "new space economy", isn't just about applying the logic of the California tech sector to space. There is also a rebirth of space ambitions, with new space exploration programs fueled by the visions of entrepreneurs that don't hesitate to proclaim their desire to go back to the Moon or embark on the conquest of Mars. This new cycle sees European actors position themselves somewhere between concerns about ever increasing competition and the desire to grasp opportunities. To better understand these challenges, IAI invites you to a seminar on the exploration of space showcasing the views of both experts and visionaries, who will illustrate the Italian perspective on the matter.