The International Spectator, Vol. 45, No. 2, June 2010

Sezioni speciali su Russia-EU Security Relations e Peace and Security in Africa

The Russia-EU Energy Relationship: Getting it Right Free
Recent Publications Free

Data pubblicazione: 
What is Missing in Obama's Strategy Towards AfPak?
Elisa Giunchi
Pakistan's cooperation is of vital importance to US interests in Afghanistan, but so far Zardari's government has not been any more successful than its predecessor in checking the extremists in the northwestern areas, despite stepped up operations. Part of the reason for this is that the militants are seen as valuable proxies in a hostile regional context. Foremost among the fears of the Pakistani leadership is that New Delhi is bent on encircling militarily and isolating Pakistan and fomenting its fragmentation along ethnic lines. This fear has been fuelled by India's forward policy in Afghanistan and north of Afghanistan as well as its increasing alignment with Washington. Far from being irrational, as is often claimed, these concerns are grounded in Pakistan's history. In order for an effective strategy to counter extremism to emerge in Pakistan, the perceptions that guide Pakistani foreign policy have to be given due attention and concrete steps taken to improve Indo-Pakistan relations, starting from the Kashmiri issue.
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Europe in the World: All Change or No Change in Foreign Policy After Lisbon?
Brendan Donnelly
The Lisbon Treaty sets ambitious goals for the Union in the field of external relations, but makes limited changes in the pursuit of these goals. The role of the High Representative is reinforced and an External Action Service will be set up, but decisions on the common foreign and security policy are still to be taken by consensus. The Representative and the Service will seek to facilitate the emergence of such consensus and to increase the effectiveness of its external implementation. But this can only be a gradual process, the success of which will depend largely upon the continuing political will of the member states.
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Europe Forum
The EU's Externalisation of Internal Security Objectives: Perspectives after Lisbon and Stockholm
Jörg Monar
The EU as an area of "freedom, security and justice", faces a number of internal security concerns, such as organised crime, terrorism and illegal immigration which require external measures to combat them effectively. Limited progress has been made in the four dimensions of externalisation of EU internal security (the integration of internal security objectives into EU external relations strategy, cooperation with third countries, capacity building in third countries and common action within international organisations) and the EU must continue to expand its capabilities to use external measures to help solve internal security challenges. The Treaty of Lisbon and the 2010-14 Stockholm Programme are both likely to foster further externalisation of EU internal security objectives, but whether this becomes reality will depend to a large degree on the Commission's Action Plan.
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Russia-EU Security Relations
Russia's Approach to Security Building in the Euro-Atlantic Zone
Vladimir Baranovsky
Russia-related problems remain prominent in the European security debate. While a minimalist goal would be to reduce mutual antagonism in the Russia-European security area, a more ambitious mission would be to make Europe part of the eventual solution of Russia's problems, and vice versa. Moscow's draft of a European security treaty was not met with overwhelming enthusiasm. But engaging in a serious re-thinking and re-building of the Euro-Atlantic security architecture seems to be increasingly perceived as a worthy endeavour. What is needed is an entire network of instruments for governance and joint actions, both in "traditional" security areas and in new ones. Some of these tools could appear within the framework of existing multilateral institutions or in conjunction with them, others could emerge from their reform (or, conversely, stimulate it), while certain structures would require a new basis. Within such an agenda, Russia's involvement in the Euro-Atlantic area as a respectable and responsible actor would be an essential factor in promoting security in it.
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The Russia-EU Energy Relationship: Getting it Right
James Sherr
The problems of Russia's energy sector, the part of the economy most broadly linked with Russia's prosperity and revived international influence, have been emphasized by the global financial crisis. Yet it remains an open question whether this, as well as various other factors, including the beginning of a genuine gas market and China's methodical advances in Central Asia, could encourage Russia to take the difficult decisions needed to make the energy sector more responsive and competitive. For its part, the EU has the potential to influence Russia, but if it continues to define itself by its divisions, it will not be able to use the influence it has gained. Without a strategic and coordinated approach, the EU is unlikely to be able to overcome its security dilemma and could find that the future is determined by other actors.
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Peace and Security in Africa
Coordinating International Support for African Peace and Security Efforts: From the G8 to the EU
Andebrhan W. Giorgis
The many regional and intrastate wars and conflicts have contributed significantly to Africa's overall economic, political and strategic marginalisation in world affairs. The AU's new African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) is designed to provide conflict prevention, peace-keeping and peace-building on the continent, but lacks autonomy. The UN, EU, G8 countries, China and, to some extent, NATO and India are active players on the African peace and security scene and are engaged in assisting APSA's operationalisation. But the multiplicity of actors, the magnitude of resources involved and the enormity of the challenges point to the need to enhance coordination by setting up a single entry point for channeling international assistance. Having provided the most funding to date, and with its strong strategic ties with Africa and its extensive participation in other regional and global fora, the EU is best equipped to coordinate support to minimise wasteful duplication, ensure synergy in developing the APSA and implementing its mandate.
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Towards an Effective Africa-EU Partnership on Peace and Security: Rhetoric or Facts?
Nicoletta Pirozzi
Peace and security are a key dimension of the Joint Africa-EU Strategy, adopted at the Lisbon Summit in December 2007. In view of its revision in 2010, a series of shortcomings and some successes can be identified in relation to four main strategic objectives: enhancing the political dialogue on common threats, building a global security partnership, promoting a people-centred approach, ensuring coordination among instruments and resources. In order to make the new peace and security partnership work, the EU is now called upon to address both external and internal challenges: supporting the development of effective African capabilities for the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts, promoting better governance and transparency standards on the continent and establishing a common EU Africa policy.
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Italy in World Affairs
The Burden of Crime on Development and FDI in Southern Italy
Vittorio Daniele
Crime imposes various costs on society - for prevention, for response, the consequences for the victims themselves, etc. But there are also other kinds of costs that are indirect, and such as lost investment, lost jobs and fewer opportunities for development. In the case of Italy, the historical presence of organised crime in the southern regions represents a significant economic burden. Economists have tried to estimate the costs and the economic and social consequences of crime. Studies clearly show that high levels of crime tends to affect economic outcomes negatively, creating notable distortions in local markets and a business climate that is unfavourable to foreign and national investment.
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Book Reviews
Going Beyond Stereotypes: A Grassroots Perspective of Hamas
Benedetta Voltolini
Review of: The political ideology of Hamas. A grassroots perspective, by Michael Irving Jensen, I.B. Tauris, 2009
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Human Rights and the Value of Practice
Pietro Maffettone
Review of: The idea of human rights, by Charles R. Beitz, Oxford University Press, 2009
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Belgium and Italy in the UN Security Council
David Criekemans
Review of: Belgium in the UN Security Council : reflections on the 2007-2008 membership, edited by Jan Wouters, Edith Drieskens and Sven Biscop, Intersentia, 2009
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