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State and Non-State Alliances in the Middle East


Proxy relationships between non-state challengers and their external state patrons in the Middle East are a factor that can weaken regional stability as non-state proxies become both a tool and a decisive factor in shaping inter-state competition between regional powers. As a result, non-state actors with regional influence must increasingly be factored into policy decisions in military, diplomatic and legal terms.
Keywords: Middle East, Hezbollah, Muslim Brotherhood, Kurds, non-state actors, alliances, proxy wars