The democratic deficit in the relationship between European institutions and citizens stems from the lack of a pan-European public sphere where supranational policy-making and national politics can be reconciled. One of the key reasons for the absence of a pan-European public sphere is the extremely limited politicization of European policy-making in the eyes of European citizens in a context whereby Europe is perceived as an entity of “policy without politics”. The aim of this paper is to highlight how a politicization of the European policy-making process through a dialectical engagement of progressive and liberal forces with conservative and nationalistic ones can contribute to the development of a pan-European public sphere.
2. Europe's original sin: policy without politics
3. Europe today: the potential for contested politics
4. Politicizing Europe: the "Champions" of European politics
5. The European public sphere
6. The characteristics of a pan-European public sphere
7. Which mechanisms would best promote a European public sphere?