Building Sustainable Agriculture for Food Security in the Euro-Mediterranean Area: Challenges and Policy Options

Per i paesi del Medio Oriente e del Nord Africa è molto importante impegnarsi sul fronte dell'agricoltura sostenibile e della sicurezza alimentare. La regione è fortemente dipendente dalle importazioni alimentari, e per questo motivo il notevole aumento dei prezzi dei generi alimentari – a partire dal 2007 – e la successiva crisi alimentare mondiale hanno colpito duramente diversi paesi dell’area, causando problemi macroeconomici (inflazione, deficit commerciali, aumento della pressione fiscale), un aumento della povertà e instabilità politica. Questi problemi si sommano ad altri – le conseguenze del degrado ambientale e dei cambiamenti climatici, la scarsità d'acqua e l'urbanizzazione – rendendo necessario e urgente lo sviluppo di un’agricoltura e di sistemi alimentari sostenibili. L'agricoltura è stata finora per lo più ignorata nelle relazioni euro-mediterranee, a causa di una forte opposizione da parte dell'Ue, ma adesso accademici e politici stanno cominciando a rendersi conto di come essa sia un settore strategico fondamentale per i paesi del Mediterraneo, che deve divenire centrale nella cooperazione regionale euromediterranea. Data la delicatezza e l'importanza strategica del settore agricolo per entrambe le sponde del Mediterraneo, IAI e OCP Policy Center hanno organizzato una conferenza di due giorni a Rabat (20-21 novembre 2014) per discutere di sicurezza alimentare e agricoltura nell'ambito della relazioni euromediterranee. Il presente volume raccoglie le versioni aggiornate e riviste dei dodici studi discussi in quell’incontro.

Questo volume è il risultato della conferenza internazionale tenutasi a Rabat il 20-21 novembre 2014, organizzata nell'ambito del partenariato strategico tra l'Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) e l'OCP Policy Center (OCPPC). Presentato al seminario "Linking Food Security to Sustainable Agricultural Policies in the Mediterranean: The Experts' Views", organizzato all'Expo, Milano, 20 giugno 2015.

Dati bibliografici: 
Roma, Nuova Cultura, maggio 2015, 334 p.
Allegati: 
ISBN/ISSN/DOI: 
978-88-6812-508-0
Data pubblicazione: 
11/06/2015

List of Contributors, p. 11-13
List of Abbreviations, p. 15-19
Foreward, p. 21

1. Understanding Food Security and Agricultural Challenges in the Euro-Mediterranean Region
Maria Cristina Paciello, p. 23-30
1.1 Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture
1.2 Why Did the MENA Region Become a Net-Food Importer?
1.3 The Contributions to the Volume
References

Part I. Food Security Challenges in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

2. Geopolitical Implications of Water and Food Security in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries
Eugenia Ferragina and Giovanni Canitano, p. 33-59
Introduction
2.1 The Effect of Climatic Change on Water and Food Security
2.2 The Water-Food Nexus
2.3 The Quest for Food Security in SEMCs: Economic and Political Implications
2.4 Conflict Over Land and Water: A Geopolitical Issue
2.5 Food Security from the Euro-Mediterranean Perspective
Conclusion
References

3. Livestock and Food Security in the Arab region: Policy Impact within the Euro-Mediterranean Framework
Shadi K. Hamadeh, Lina S. Jaber, Katharina E. Diehl, p. 61-84
Introduction
3.1 The Arab Livestock Sector
3.2 Trade with the EU
3.3 National Policies
3.4 EU Policies
3.5 Synergies between EU and Arab Policies
3.5.1 Arab Policies
3.5.2 EU Policies
3.5.3 Euro-Mediterranean Policies
Conclusion
References

4. Allowing or Banning Genetically Modified Food and Feed? Morocco in Search of a Synthesis between Conflicting Regulatory Models
Daniela Corona, p. 85-110
Introduction
4.1 GMOs in Context: A Possible Solution to Feed the African Continent?
4.2 Regulatory Framework on Food Safety in Morocco: The Longstanding Attempt to Regulate GMOs
4.2.1 International Rules Dealing with GMOs
4.2.2 National Regulatory Framework on Food Safety: GMO Regulation Is Notably Absent
4.3 EU-Morocco Relations: Exerting Influence Against GMOs
4.3.1 EU-Morocco Relations
4.3.2 EU Regulation on GMOs: Work in Progress
4.4 US-Morocco Relations: Exerting Influence in Favour of GMOs
4.4.1 The US Approach to GMOs: Go-ahead!
4.4.2 US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement (FTA)
Conclusions
References

Part II. Small Farming and Agricultural Production Systems in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

5. The Challenges to Achieve Sustainable Exports of Fruit from Small-Holdings in the Southern Mediterranean
Caroline King-Okumu and Abdrabbo A.A.S. Aboukheira, p. 113-137
Introduction
5.1 Background on Horticultural Imports to the EU
5.2 Import Standards and Constraints on Smallholders’ Access to Export Markets
5.3 Progress and Constraints to Environmentally Sustainable Citrus Production in Egypt
5.4 Case Study: Citrus Production in El Bustan, Nile Delta, 2011-13
5.5 Discussion
5.6 Policy Implications
Conclusions
References

6. Réhabiliter les systèmes agricoles basés sur la diversification culturale et l'intégration de l'élevage en vue de favoriser la sécurité alimentaire au Maroc
Mohamed Taher Sraïri et Marcel Kuper, p. 139-156
Introduction
6.1 Volatilité des prix agricoles et vulnérabilité face à l'aléa climatique
6.2 Le travail agricole: de l'abondance à l’exacerbation des tensions
6.3 L'enjeu de la durabilité face à des ressources hydriques menacées
6.4 Dépendance vis-à-vis de gènes importés
6.5 Stagnation des rendements des cultures vivrières et augmentation des importations
6.6 Une agriculture diversifiée pour une meilleure sécurité alimentaire
Conclusion
Références

7. Small Farmers' Collective Action Problems in Crop Switching and Adopting Higher Food Standards: How Could the EU Help Foster Sustainable Development?
Omer Gokcekus and Clare M. Finnegan, p. 157-176
Introduction
7.1 Main Issue: Collective Action Problem
7.2 Background: Cyprus & Its Green Line Regulation
7.2.1 The Green Line Regulation
7.3 Case 1: Beekeepers' Dated Standards
7.3.1 Turkish Cypriot Beekeepers and the Collective Action Problem
7.3.2 Building Adaptive Capacity and Creating Sustainable Development
7.4 Case 2: Citrus Growers' Dilemma
7.4.1 Climate Considerations
7.4.2 Overcoming the Collective Action Problem in Four Phases
7.4.3 Building Adaptive Capacity and Creating Sustainable Development
7.5 Lessons Learned
References

Part III. Agricultural Trade Liberalization

8. The Effect of Trade Liberalization on the Sustainability of Agricultural Sectors in Egypt and Tunisia: A New Framework Based on TFP Growth Structure
Boubaker Dhehibi, Aymen Frija, Roberto Telleria and Aden Aw-Hassan, p. 179-205
Introduction
8.1 Literature Review on TFP Growth in the MENA Region
8.2 Measuring Agricultural Productivity: An Application of the Törnqvist-Theil Index
8.2.1 Theoretical Framework
8.2.2 Data and Variables Specification
8.3 Empirical Findings and General Discussion
8.3.1 Outputs, Inputs and TFP Indexes
8.3.2 Factors Affecting Total Factor Productivity Growth
Conclusions and Policy Implications
References

9. Revisiting the Effect of Trade Preferences Granted to Morocco in the Light of an Export-orientated Approach for Food Security
Laura Márquez-Ramos and Victor Martinez-Gomez, p. 207-228
Introduction
9.1 Trade Policy and Literature Review
9.2 Data and Descriptive Analysis
9.3 Empirical Analysis
Conclusion and Policy Implications
References

10. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy Reforms and the Sustainability of Agro-food Systems in the Euro-Mediterranean Region: How to Get Trade and Development Back on the Agenda?
Marko Lovec, p. 229-250
Introduction: The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy as Obstacle to Euro-Mediterranean Integration
10.1 Framework for Analysis: Mechanisms Facilitating the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy Reforms and Euro-Mediterranean Agriculture
10.1.1 Note on the Method
10.2 Results of Parallel Analysis of Common Agricultural Policy Reforms and the Euro-Mediterranean Integration Process
10.2.1 New Global Regime on Trade and Agriculture and the Launch of the Barcelona Process
10.2.2 Towards Multifunctional Policy Paradigm and Re-engagement in the Barcelona Process
10.2.3 Status Quo Bias of the 2013 Reform and the Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa
Discussion and Recommendations: How to Get Trade and Development Back on the Agenda
References

Part IV. Policy Options to Foster Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

11. Sustainable Mediterranean Agriculture for Food Security? Challenges for the Euro-Mediterranean Relationship
Michel Petit, p. 253-280
Introduction
11.1 Current Domestic Policies and Recent Trends Are Not Sustainable
11.1.1 Import Dependency
11.1.2 Stubborn Rural Poverty
11.1.3 Deteriorating Natural Resources
11.1.4 Worrisome Demographic Trends
11.2 Implications for the Euro-Mediterranean Relationship
11.2.1 Trade Liberalization at the Centre of the Relationship for Decades
11.2.2 Unintended Consequences of the Role Given to Trade Liberalization
11.3 A New Strategic Direction Is Needed
Conclusion
References

12. The Cross-national Coordination of Urban Food Policies in the Euro-Mediterranean Area: The Urban Food Policy Pact Initiative as a Model for Enhanced Food Security in the South Mediterranean Region
Lorenzo Kihlgren Grandi and Cecilia Emma Sottilotta, p. 281-309
Introduction
12.1 Concept and Measurement of Food Security: An Overview
12.2 Food Security and Urbanization
12.3 Urbanization and Food Security in the Southern Mediterranean Area
12.4 Advocating Globally for Urban Food Policies: The Road to Expo 2015 Milan
12.5 The Urban Food Policy Pact
12.6 Building the Urban Food Policy Pact: Tools and Partners
12.7 Milan’s UFPP as a Model for the Mediterranean Region: Challenges and Opportunities
Conclusion
References

13. Functional Integration of Renewable Energy and Food Production Systems for the Mediterranean Countries
Marco Adami and Alberto Battistelli, p. 311-325
Introduction
13.1 The Project: ECOFLEX
13.1.1 The Experiment
13.1.2 Results and Discussion
Conclusions
References

Annexes, p. 327-334

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