The Security–Migration–Development Nexus Revised: A Perspective from the Sahel

The nexus of security, migration and development in Africa is crucial, but certainly not only because of the flows of migrants coming to Europe. It is evident that development, migration, peace and security are connected in several ways, but more light needs to be shed on the concrete effects of their interactions. In this complex framework, the Sahel region represents an important region where the security–migration–development nexus is particularly present and deserves further analysis. This research aims at re-conceptualizing this nexus through the analysis of this linkage in the Sahel region, and in particular vis-à-vis three case countries: Niger, Senegal and Sudan. The publication also recasts the European Union and the United States approaches to these dynamics and explores current and potential partnerships in the region.

This book is the result of a IAI-FEPS project entitled “The security-migration-development nexus revised: a perspective from the Sahel”. Revised version of six policy reports presented at an international conference held in Addis Ababa on 11 December 2017. Volume presented at the event “Avoiding the sandstorm in the Sahel”, Rome, 20 February 2018.

Brussels, Foundation for European Progressive Studies (FEPS) and Rome, Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), December 2017, 170 p.
Publication date: 

Foreword, by Ernst Stetter and Nathalie Tocci, p. 7-8
Introduction, by Bernardo Venturi and Vassilis Ntousas, p. 9-11

1. The Security–Migration–Development Nexus in the Sahel: A Reality Check, by Luca Raineri and Alessandro Rossi, p. 13-34
1. Tsunami or mountain creeks? A reality check of migration in the Sahel
2. The migration-development nexus
3. The migration-security nexus
4. Options to improve the EU and US contributions to the governance of the security-migration-development nexus in the Sahel

2. The Security–Migration–Development Nexus in the Sahel: A View from Niger, by Mahamadou Danda, p. 35-56
1. The status quo: Niger’s domestic and external environment
1.1 The chief features of Niger’s domestic and external environment
1.2 Niger, the epicentre of migration in West Africa: issues and challenges
2. Links between migration, security and development in Niger
2.1 The significance and scope of the migration, security and development paradigms
2.2 The causes of irregular migration in Niger
2.3 Links between migration and development
2.4 Links between migration and security
3. Local authorities’ and international players’ responses
Conclusion and recommendations

3. The Security–Migration–Development Nexus in the Sahel: A View from Senegal, by Souleymane Sagna, p. 57-83
1. The changing patterns of migration routes from Senegal
1.1 From flight itineraries to trans-Saharan routes
1.1.1 The ocean route
1.1.2 The desert route
1.1.3 Implications of the involvement of criminal networks, including human traffickers, terrorist groups and smugglers
1.2 The legal and policy framework for the management of migration to Senegal: border control, taxation and the right to establishment
1.2.1 A legal framework strengthened to deal with irregular migration and related crimes
1.2.2 Migration management based on agreements, cooperation policies and institutional development
1.3 The impact of migrant populations, settlement and occupations in the national economy
2. The nexus between migration and development in Senegal
2.1 Government development programmes and the place of migrants’ remittances
2.2 State monitoring and administrative policies for tracing, securing and facilitating remittance: gaps and prospects
3. European perceptions of the nexus between migration and security
3.1 National security threats and migration trends in and out of Senegal
3.2 Security at the heart of migration out of Senegal: from causal to induced effects
3.3 Government national-security strategies and regional cooperation as an effective response to migration and security crises
Concluding remarks and recommendations

4. The Security–Migration–Development Nexus in the Sahel: A View from Sudan, by Bashair Ahmed, p. 85-108
1. Setting the scene: Migration data to, across and from Sudan
2. Migration patterns
3. Local, national and regional migration drivers and enablers
4. The impact of conflicts and (in-)security on migration
5. Borderless borders? Sudanese and neighbouring countries’ migration governance
6. How is migration managed?
7. Legal framework and policies governing migration in Sudan
Conclusion and recommendations

5. The EU and the Sahel: A Laboratory of Experimentation for the Security–Migration–Development Nexus, by Bernardo Venturi, p. 109-128
1. AU–EU relations ten years after the Joint Africa–EU Strategy
2. The EU approach to the Sahel
3. A comprehensive approach beyond shortcuts

6. US Policy in the Sahel: Shifting Strategies amid Shifting Threats in a Volatile Region, by Audra K. Grant, p. 129-152
1. Why the Sahel matters
2. The evolution of US policy in Africa
3. US interests in the Sahel
3.1 Economic interests
3.2 Security interests
3.3 Democracy and human rights
4. US approaches to transnational security threats in the Sahel
4.1 Military instruments
4.2 Civilian instruments
5. US approaches to human security in the Sahel
6. Looking ahead: The Trump administration and Africa
Conclusion and recommendations for the US

7. Notes for Further Research, by Bernardo Venturi and Vassilis Ntousas, p. 153-155
Abbreviations and Acronyms, p. 157-161
Contributors, p. 163-167

Research area