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Middle East Challenges Change, Demands on the West Remain


–– Rejoinder, 29 Years Later ––
British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston once said that “Nations have no permanent friends or allies, they only have permanent interests.” The French are pithier: “Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose.” Nearly 30 years after I wrote “US Interests and the Use of Force in the Middle East”, these aphorisms are a good starting point for assessing American interests and policies in the Middle East, including approaches to the use of force. […]

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