The EU Defence Market Directives: Genesis, Implementation and Way Ahead
The 2009 directives on defence procurement (2009/81) and intra-EU transfers (2009/43) were adopted after a delicate process led by the European Commission and influenced by the member states. As a result, they present significant limits and weaknesses. Over the last decade, their implementation has been difficult, slow and partial, bringing inadequate results. In particular, exemptions to Directive 2009/81 are excessively used, while national controls over intra-EU transfers have not been sufficiently simplified nor reduced by Directive 2009/43. The most appropriate way ahead is an update of both directives through a new and better enforceable EU legislation. This would bring several advantages to both armed forces and industries in the Union, and benefit the European quest for strategic autonomy.
1. The delicate genesis of the 2009 directives
2. The critical aspects of the two directives
3. A slow, difficult and partial implementation
4. An ambitious way ahead