EU, Conflict Transformation, and Civil Society: Promoting Peace from the Bottom Up?
The European Union established in order to bring about peace on the continent has instinctively considered conflict resolution a cardinal objective of its fledging foreign policy. Specifically, it has aimed at reconciling societies and transforming conflict, above simply managing crises and inducing settlements. In view of this, the EU has considered civil society as a key actor in conflict settings. This article seeks to unpack how the EU can engage with civil society actors in conflict areas as well as to provide an analytical framework to understand the EU’s impact on conflict through its engagement with civil society. To do so, the article posits three hypotheses: the liberal peace, the disembedded civil society and the Gramscian hypotheses. Rather than addressing which and to what extent these hypotheses apply in the abstract, this article presents a number of empirical examples drawn from the EU’s engagement with civil society organizations in several neighbourhood conflicts in order to illustrate their relevance for analysis.
Revised version of "The European Union, Civil Society and Conflict: An Analytical Framework", in Nathalie Tocci (ed.), The European Union, Civil Society and Conflict, London and New York, Routledge, 2011, p. 1-27 (Routledge/UACES contemporary European studies ; 19), ISBN 978-0-415-59671-8; 978-0-203-82818-2 (ebk), produced within the framework of the project MICROCON.
2. The European Union and Conflict Transformation
3. Conflict Transformation and Civil Society
4. The EU, Conflict Transformation and Civil Society: Methods of Engagement
5. The EU's Impact on Conflict Transformation in the Neighbourhood through Engagement with Civil Society: Three Hypotheses
5.1 Hypothesis 1: The Liberal Peace Paradigm
5.2 Hypothesis 2: The Disembedded Civil Society Critique
5.3 Hypothesis 3: The Gramscian Critique