The Security–Migration–Development Nexus Revised: A Perspective from the Sahel

In Africa il nesso tra sicurezza, migrazione e sviluppo è cruciale, e sicuramente non solo a causa dei flussi di migranti in arrivo in Europa. Questi fattori – sviluppo, migrazioni, pace e sicurezza – sono evidentemente collegati in vari modi, ma è necessario chiarire meglio quali sono gli effetti concreti delle loro interazioni. In questa struttura complessa il Sahel si presenta come una regione in cui il nesso tra sicurezza, migrazione e sviluppo è particolarmente importante e merita ulteriori analisi. La presente ricerca mira a ridefinire tale nesso attraverso un’analisi nella regione – e in particolare in tre paesi, ossia Niger, Senegal e Sudan. Il volume riconsidera inoltre l’approccio dell’Unione europea e degli Stati Uniti a tali dinamiche ed esplora gli attuali e potenziali partenariati nella regione.

Risultato del progetto IAI-Feps “La revisione del legame sicurezza-migrazione-sviluppo: una prospettiva dal Sahel”. Versione rivista di sei policy report discussi in una conferenza internazionale tenutasi ad Addis Abeba l’11 dicembre 2017. Volume presentato all’evento “Avoiding the sandstorm in the Sahel”, Roma, 20 febbraio 2018.

Curatori: 
Dati bibliografici: 
Bruxelles, Foundation for European Progressive Studies (FEPS) e Roma, Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), dicembre 2017, 170 p.
Allegati: 
ISBN/ISSN/DOI: 
978-88-6812-972-9
Data pubblicazione: 
20/02/2018

Foreword, by Ernst Stetter and Nathalie Tocci, p. 7-8
Introduction, by Bernardo Venturi and Vassilis Ntousas, p. 9-11

1. The Security–Migration–Development Nexus in the Sahel: A Reality Check, by Luca Raineri and Alessandro Rossi, p. 13-34
1. Tsunami or mountain creeks? A reality check of migration in the Sahel
2. The migration-development nexus
3. The migration-security nexus
4. Options to improve the EU and US contributions to the governance of the security-migration-development nexus in the Sahel

2. The Security–Migration–Development Nexus in the Sahel: A View from Niger, by Mahamadou Danda, p. 35-56
1. The status quo: Niger’s domestic and external environment
1.1 The chief features of Niger’s domestic and external environment
1.2 Niger, the epicentre of migration in West Africa: issues and challenges
2. Links between migration, security and development in Niger
2.1 The significance and scope of the migration, security and development paradigms
2.2 The causes of irregular migration in Niger
2.3 Links between migration and development
2.4 Links between migration and security
3. Local authorities’ and international players’ responses
Conclusion and recommendations

3. The Security–Migration–Development Nexus in the Sahel: A View from Senegal, by Souleymane Sagna, p. 57-83
1. The changing patterns of migration routes from Senegal
1.1 From flight itineraries to trans-Saharan routes
1.1.1 The ocean route
1.1.2 The desert route
1.1.3 Implications of the involvement of criminal networks, including human traffickers, terrorist groups and smugglers
1.2 The legal and policy framework for the management of migration to Senegal: border control, taxation and the right to establishment
1.2.1 A legal framework strengthened to deal with irregular migration and related crimes
1.2.2 Migration management based on agreements, cooperation policies and institutional development
1.3 The impact of migrant populations, settlement and occupations in the national economy
2. The nexus between migration and development in Senegal
2.1 Government development programmes and the place of migrants’ remittances
2.2 State monitoring and administrative policies for tracing, securing and facilitating remittance: gaps and prospects
3. European perceptions of the nexus between migration and security
3.1 National security threats and migration trends in and out of Senegal
3.2 Security at the heart of migration out of Senegal: from causal to induced effects
3.3 Government national-security strategies and regional cooperation as an effective response to migration and security crises
Concluding remarks and recommendations

4. The Security–Migration–Development Nexus in the Sahel: A View from Sudan, by Bashair Ahmed, p. 85-108
1. Setting the scene: Migration data to, across and from Sudan
2. Migration patterns
3. Local, national and regional migration drivers and enablers
4. The impact of conflicts and (in-)security on migration
5. Borderless borders? Sudanese and neighbouring countries’ migration governance
6. How is migration managed?
7. Legal framework and policies governing migration in Sudan
Conclusion and recommendations

5. The EU and the Sahel: A Laboratory of Experimentation for the Security–Migration–Development Nexus, by Bernardo Venturi, p. 109-128
1. AU–EU relations ten years after the Joint Africa–EU Strategy
2. The EU approach to the Sahel
3. A comprehensive approach beyond shortcuts
Recommendations

6. US Policy in the Sahel: Shifting Strategies amid Shifting Threats in a Volatile Region, by Audra K. Grant, p. 129-152
1. Why the Sahel matters
2. The evolution of US policy in Africa
3. US interests in the Sahel
3.1 Economic interests
3.2 Security interests
3.3 Democracy and human rights
4. US approaches to transnational security threats in the Sahel
4.1 Military instruments
4.2 Civilian instruments
5. US approaches to human security in the Sahel
6. Looking ahead: The Trump administration and Africa
Conclusion and recommendations for the US

7. Notes for Further Research, by Bernardo Venturi and Vassilis Ntousas, p. 153-155
Abbreviations and Acronyms, p. 157-161
Contributors, p. 163-167

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