The aim of this paper is to explore the practice of EU multilateralism vis-à-vis the Mediterranean — a key region for the European Union — by examining energy and migration policies. These two issue-areas are crucial in the Union’s strategy for incorporating internal policy objectives into external, multilateral frameworks. The paper assesses the extent to which the EU can be defined as multilateral by exploring the actions of the European Commission and member states in their relations with the different stakeholders concerned with the pursuit of these policies — partner countries and a range of international and non-governmental organisations. The paper will conclude by gauging the extent to which multilateralism can be termed as effective in view of the outcomes of the EU’s engagement with these policy areas at internal and external levels.
Documento prodotto nell'ambito del progetto Mercury, finanziato dal Settimo programma quadro dell'Unione europea. Pubblicato in: Caroline Bouchard, John Peterson and Nathalie Tocci (eds.), Multilateralism in the 21st Century. Europe's Quest for Effectiveness, London and New York, Routledge, agosto 2013, p. 157-177, ISBN 978-0-415-52003-4; 978-0-415-52004-1 (pbk).
Conceptualising Multilateralism in EU-Med Relations
The EU and the Mediterranean Region: A Background
Towards the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
Complementary Frameworks: The ENP and the UfM
Energy Policy: Limited Multilateralism Beyond Cooperation
The EU Energy Policy: The Challenge of Multilateral Cooperation
Towards the Creation of the EU Internal Energy Market
A Compliant EU Policy in Terms of Environment Protection
The EU Mediterranean Energy Policy: The Triumph of Bilateralism
Mediterranean Energy Potential in the Eyes of External Actors
Europe’s Migration Policy and the Mediterranean: Effective Multilateralism or Patchy Implementation?
Mapping the Actors in EU Migration Policies
Internal Multilateralism on Migration: A Case of Selective Convergence
The EU and the Mediterranean: Dominant Bilateralism
International Migration Management and Limited Compliance
Other Organisations and Patchy Cooperation