Basic questions posed in this study were whether the trend of Gulf involvement in the Mediterranean economies was sustainable, what the specifics of those investments are, and could a triangular cooperation be envisaged? What is clear is that Gulf investors have become major players in the Mediterranean with an investment volume of more than 70 billion Euro in nearly 700 projects since January 2003. The Gulf now seems to have joined Europe as a sustainable second investment pillar. The complementarities between needs and resources of Europe, GCC and Med countries call for the implementation of an integrated co-operation model, similar to the Japan-China-ASEAN triangle.
Paper presented at the seminar "The Mediterranean: Opportunities to Develop EU-GCC Relations?", Rome, 10-11 December 2009, organised by the Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) within the framework of the Al Jisr project. Published in: Roberto Aliboni (ed.), The Mediterranean: Opportunities to Develop EU-GCC Relations?, Roma, IAI, 2010, p. 31-55 (IAI Quaderni English series 18).
1. The Gulf and the Mediterranean: The Beginning of an Affair?
2. Global Picture of FDI in MED Countries
3. Gulf State and EU Investments in the Mediterranean
3.1 A recent Gulf boost, sometimes oversold
3.2. Comparison of Gulf and EU FDI profiles in the Mediterranean
3.3. Sectoral preferences
3.4. Greenfield projects often oversized
3.5. FDI geography: Emirates and Mashreq first
3.6. Big companies …
4. Some other Gulf Financing Vehicles
4.1. Private equity funds: growing activism of Gulf in MED markets
4.2. Sovereign Wealth Funds
4.3. Islamic finance and charities
4.4. Gulf investments in the Northern rim (European economies)
5. MED trade relationships with GCC and EU
6. The Existing MED-EU-GCC Co-operation
7. Three Proposals for an Improved Euro-Gulf-MED Relationship
7.1 Building confidence via a permanent dialogue platform
7.2 Developing SMEs
7.3 A sustainable investment charter for the Mediterranean